wtorek, 7 lipca 2015

Transport - different types and classifications

Transportation (lat. Transportare - move, transport) - the movement of people, cargo (the subject of transport) in space by appropriate means (means of transport).

Transport needs belong to a group of secondary human needs and are related to the fact different spatial distribution of resources, human settlements and jobs. Transportation accompanied humanity since the very beginnings of civilization. It is next to the communications sector of the economy, which increase the usability of goods through their movement in space. Transport is closely linked with the rest of the economy. Its development determines their development and vice versa - worse development of the economy or transport is associated with deterioration of the situation appropriately in transport and economy [1] [2]. In conjunction with logistics and freight forwarding, transportation is part of the TSL sector (transport-forwarding-logistics).

Classifications transport
From the point of view of transport economics it is to reward the provision of services, which is mostly the result of displacement of people and cargo. Hence the basic division of transport on passenger transport (communication) and freight (cargo).

Another frequently used classification breakdown cover transportation due to the environment in which the mode of transport takes place. It includes:

Air transport (which is a great part of air transport) and
surface transport, which includes:
land transportation
water transport
Land transport can be further broken down into:

road transport
railway transport
transport via pipelines
Another way land transport division includes:

underground transport (eg. metro)
ground transport
Above Ground transportation
Water transport can be further broken down into:

inland waterway transport
Sea transport (near and far)
In addition, we can distinguish mixed transportation, which held more than one mode of transport. In the mixed transport can be distinguished:

combined transport
bimodal transport
intermodal transport
multimodal transport
In turn, the concept of transport współmodalny means transport carried out in accordance with the European policy of co-modality.

The term transport is also used for the transfer of information and energy, although it is not in the full sense of transport.

Features of transport
A distinction is made transport division of functions into primary and secondary. The functions of the primary functions include the transport and associated functions reloading. For the secondary functions include mainly the function of securing roads (ie road construction and maintenance), as well as the accountability function.

Effects on the environment
Transportation is one of the sectors with the most harmful effects on the environment and health. For example, in 2005 in the EU-27, this sector was responsible for generating 19% of carbon dioxide (about 984 megatons) [4]. Therefore the European Union in the framework of a sustainable transport policy take coordinated action to reduce these harmful effects by integrating transport policy with environmental policy. The result is m.in .: tightening standards on emissions, promote alternative energy sources (biofuels, CNG, LPG), and the promotion of means of transport with less fuel consumption per tonne of transported cargo (eg. Multimodal transport, transport współmodalny, transportation inland waterways).

Shipping is the most environmentally friendly and energy-efficient form of transport. For example, the average carbon load carried on a barge that as much as by land would have to carry at least 20 trucks, producing five times more exhaust fumes. While 1 liter of fuel can move a boat at a distance of 1 km until 127 tons of cargo, while rail 97 tons and 50 tons of car only.

More about Transport in Rybnik here : http://www.transportrybnik.pl/

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